Thursday, October 27, 2011

Rule Of Future Trade

In September 2000, DG Trade a draft communication on ‘Towards a sustainable trade policy “, as a contribution from the Commission to the Cardiff integration process. The document was drawn up without input from other Commission services. It was then stopped by the Environment DG, because the attention was focused on the WTO and not trade policies in a broader context. In addition, it gave insufficient attention to the environment.

The document was then just an informal discussion paper "The non-trade impacts of trade policy – asking questions, pursuing sustainable development." In March 2001, the Commission is also working on integrating the environment into the policy for external relations. This was a reasonably tailored description of the portfolio of the DG External Relations, which the environmental dimension of the different types of buiten lands policy was examined, and which were described some proposals about what the future should be done.

A series of Council conclusions on environmental integration was approved by the General Affairs Council in April 2001. These conclusions include a report by the Council . The findings reiterate the issues should be dealt with in a strategy of integration, describing the objectives, and set a timetable for completing a strategy. In the section highlighting the need for action, a number of categories which are relatively specific proposals. Regarding foreign trade, the Commission adopted a methodology for sustainability impact assessments of trade agreements and required accompanying measures to refine. In addition, the Commission and Council should give priority to the earliest possible completion of work on the methodology for sustainability impact assessments.

Also the Commission should continue to work to clarify the legal relationship between WTO rules and based on multilateral environmental agreements adopted trade measures. There are also incentives to the address of other countries to take action, such as following the example set by the EU gave the ‘Everything But Arms’ Regulation 416/2001, which duty-free imports from the poorest countries in the world is allowed for all products except arms.

On March 11, 2002 approved the Council for General Affairs ultimate strategy for integrating well in time for the summit in Barcelona in the spring of 2002. The part of the strategy on trade is limited. It is little more than a summary of the results of the talks in Doha in December 2001. It is also a commitment to the development of sustainability impact assessments mentioned, with the aim in forthcoming negotiations on trade het component of sustainable development a more powerful and more geïntegreerde role to play.

Monday, October 10, 2011

External Trade Policies

Internal and external trade policies are among the core activities of the EU. Removing trade barriers and create conditions that foster economic growth are the main objectives of the EU. Completing the internal market must contribute to the growth and economic health of the EU. Some measures for the internal market are directly relevant to the environment, economic growth and trade but also have indirect effects on the environment by such an increase in freight, emissions, and use of natural resources.

The EU has developed a strong internal environmental agenda, including many policies are aimed at providing social and environmental protection without distorting the internal market. These internal regulations are instigated only after a long debate on many issues now also be discussed at an international level, in the context of foreign trade and the World Trade Organization (WTO). A parallel can be drawn in particular in applying the precautionary principle and related issues of risk and the possibility of Member States to stricter standards than those of the EU to apply the interest environment.

While a discussion of the internal market and the environment can be seen as a part of the wider debate about free trade and the environment, some aspects differ, depending on the position. Thus, the EU eco-label (see § 11.7) for example can be seen as a way of synergy between the internal market and protecting the environment, because ultimately the national eco-labels would replace what may have preferred a home products (such as the German “Blue Angel”, and the Scandinavian Nordic Swan). But seen from outside the EU, the EU ecolabel criticized as a means of goods from the EU advantage over imported goods from elsewhere.

Friday, October 7, 2011

Foreign Trade Policy

The harmonization of external trade policy of the EU under the Common commercial policy falls within the exclusive competence of the Community. The goal of the foreign trade policy is “to contribute in accordance with the common interest, to the harmonious development of world trade, the progressive abolition of the restrictions on international trade and the lowering of customs barriers” (Art. 131 TEC) .

Trade and environmental issues have increasingly taken a central role in discussions within the OECD, the GATT / WTO and UNCTAD. The Uruguay Round was in many ways a test case for sustainable development, the Community, acting in the name of the States, played an important role in maintaining the sustainable development agenda. A Council resolution in May 1993 on environmental protection and international trade gave a list of targets were largely achieved at the ministerial meeting in Marrakech, in particular by establishing a Committee on Trade and Environment. Proposals by the Council on clarifying the relationship between GATT trade principles and provisions in multilateral environmental agreements were largely adopted in the WTO working group on environmental and international trade.

In 1994, the Generalised (GSP) Community review. This resulted in a new system (Regulation 3281/94) to create special incentives, to include social and environmental integration in the fee structure for countries within the scope of the fall schedule. Environmental clauses in which international treaties approved products and complying with international production were promoted were effective in 1998. These were first criteria of the International Tropical Timber Organisation used. The schedule was subsequently amended and extended until December 2001 (Regulation 2820/98).

The activities of the EU environmental were also reflected in the formal approach to the Ministerial Conference in Seattle in December 1999, based on a Commission Communication ‘approach to the WTO Millennium Round the EU. “[70] In contrast to other key stakeholders included the approach of the EU’s explicit commitment to the environment. The Council considered it necessary “to ensure that an appropriate balance between further liberalization of trade and the strengthening of multilateral rules contributes to sustainable development, environmental protection, social progress, poverty reduction and consumer health

Sunday, October 2, 2011

Potential Environmental Effects of Future Trade

Internal Market About the plans for the development of the European single market, ie the internal market, as is stipulated is elaborated in verscheidene Communications from the Commission, as a White uit 1985. The debate on the clashes between the internal market and the environment has since recovered, for example in terms of movement of waste. It was feared that the removal of national border controls would result in a massive increase of traffic.

That issue is politically and legally resolved by adopting the principle of proximity, making the movement of waste may be restricted on grounds of environmental considerations . Examples of successful solutions to potential conflicts between environmental protection and the internal market include the Directive on packaging and packaging waste (see § 5.9), the chemicals policy (which provides that access tot the market of new substances in a Member State is extended to all Member States.

The new conditions under the Treaty of Amsterdam now provide more opportunities for Member States to introduce national environmental, within certain limits, more stringent than those of the EU. It is however too early to say that this is sufficient for dealing with future conflicts. Despite some progress in these areas, there is still concern about the environmental impact of the internal market.

The Commission Communication on the impact and effectiveness of the internal market contained a section on the It was said that the introduction of the single market expectations about the potential environmental effects were quite pessimistic. It was also said that it was too early to give a final assessment, and that it was not yet possible to explain the allegations based on measuring the environmental impact of the single market program. There remain tensions between the functioning of the open market and environmental policy objectives, something which was emphasized in the 1999 Communication on “Internal Market and the Environment” [69], which states that: “Environmental standards are sometimes seen as barriers to market access, and open markets as a threat to the quality of the environment. ” The release then lists a number of areas for pursuing environmental integration, including free movement of goods.

Specific measures include proposed guidelines for the ability of Member States to implement environmental measures to further gaan than the standards of the EU, and for increasing the extent to which the environmental richtlijnen worden converted.

Thursday, September 29, 2011

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Tuesday, September 27, 2011

Commercialization of the Sunday

The Federal Constitutional Court of the commercialization of the Sunday rejected that. The Karlsruhe court ruled on Tuesday that the law violates the liberal Berlin shops open in parts of the Basic Law. The opening on all four Sundays was unconstitutional.

The nationwide liberal law regulating the opening hours stipulates that shops open in Berlin on ten Sundays or public holidays a year shall include on all four Sundays in the period from 13.00 bis 20.00 clock. By the Berlin House of Representatives adopted legislation is since 17 November 2006 in force. The Constitutional Court ruled that the respective seven-hole on all four Sundays, which is possible according to the Berlin law without conditions, the constitutionally required minimum level of protection falls Sunday. The Berlin scheme still remain to 31 December 2009, so the shops open on Sundays during Advent this year in Berlin is still possible.

The constitutional complaints of the Protestant and Catholic Church against the Berlin Act had therefore partially successful. The other provisions in Berlin Store opening act complained of is not the Constitutional Court.

Tuesday, September 20, 2011

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